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Orlando, FL - ACC.18 Scientific Session and Exposition - carl Shakespeare at the Annual meeting © MedMeetingImages.com 2018 - carl Shakespeare is granted permission to use the photos in any medium or any personal or professional use.

Dr Carl Shakespeare


Clinical profile

I have been an invasive consultant cardiologist and general physician in the NHS for the last 25 years at Queen Elizabeth Hospital and latterly, St Thomas’s Hospital.This experience hasprovided the benefit of evaluating both the specialist cardiological and other medical clinical symptoms. In the past, I have also been an intensivist for the first 5 years of being a consultant. The mainstay of my career has been as an invasive cardiologist with a broad experience in echocardiography, transoesophageal echocardiography, pacemaker implantation and invasive coronary angiography.

Over the years, I have become accredited in cardiac MRI and cardiac CT angiography (US Board certified in 2009). Currently, apart from general cardiology, my main sub-specialist interest is in hypertension.

Academic interests

I have had a strong interest in research, having had a British Heart Foundation Fellowship to complete my MD thesis.

Previously, I was the President of the national Telemedicine Society, promoting the development of technical solutions in providing equitable delivery of healthcare. I won a national prize in the government sponsored “Invest to Save” project in 1999 for developing delivering healthcare to prisons.

I have been a Senior Fellow at the Royal Brompton Hospital, participating in cardiac MRI research.

I created the Cardiovascular Risk Institute in SE London over twenty years ago to undertake clinical research in cardiac risk factors. I have had the privilege to have been the Principle Investigator in ground breaking research that has changed clinical practice (ASCOT, EUROPA, SPARCL, IMPROVEIT).

Over the years, I have combined my academic interests with administrative functions such as having being the Clinical Director of the Cardiac Network, in order to develop local cardiological services for SE London. I now am the clinical lead in developing newer ways of delivering cardiological healthcare in Bexley.




Universite de Grenoble, France

Diplome de Francais, June 1978


University of London                            Oct 1978-Jun 19802nd MB

Kings College                                        Sep 1980-Jun 1981   BSc Physiology

Westminster Medical School               Sep 1981-Jun 1984   MBBS


Royal College of Physicians                  MRCP February 1987, FRCP April 2002

University of London                            MD December 1994

Board certified in the USA as “Diplomate in Cardiovascular CT” 2009.

Research and publications:


Shakespeare CF, Page C, O’Doherty M, et al. Metaiodobezylguanidine imaging to determine the regional sympathetic innervation of the heart. American Heart J 1993. 125: 1614-1621

Shakespeare CF, Crowther A, Cooper I et al. Differences in autonomic nerve function in patients with silent and symptomatic myocardial ischaemia. British Heart Journal. 1994. 71:22-30

Shakespeare CF, Crowther A, Cooper I et al. The mechanism of autonomic reflexes induced during coronary angiography. Coronary Artery Disease 1992. 3:1177-1182

Katritsis D, Shakespeare CF, Byrne C et al. Is angiographic ventriculography necessary for the assessment of ischaemic patients? Clinical Cardiology 1992


Fragakis N, Patel S,, Lloyd G, Lambert G, Robson D, Shakespeare CF. Transoesophageal Echocardiography: Its role in the management of patients in a District General Hospital. International Journal of Clinical Practice 2000. 54:634-638

Fragakis N, Shakespeare CF, LLoyd G, et al. Reversion an Maintenance of sinus rhythm in patients with permanent AF by internal cardioversion followed by biatrial pacing. PACE 2002 25:278-286

Egred M, Andreou M, Bowker T, Shakespeare CF. Recording of coronary risk factors is no better under the cardiologists care. Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh. Clinical Effectiveness, Guidelines. Edinburgh November 2000.

Egred M, Shakespeare CF. Unusual Appearances of the Right Coronary Artery. Eur J Echocardiography 2004 3, 306-307

Barter PJ, … Illuminate Investigators... Shakespeare CF. Effects of Torcetrapib in patients at high risk for coronary events. NEJM 2007 357:2109-2122

Assamoul R, Shakespeare CF, et al. The Use of cardiac MRI in dilated cardiomyopathy. Circulation 2011(in press)

TricociP,…..TRACER Invetigators…..Shakespeare CF. Thrombin Receptor Antagonist Vorapaxar In Acute Coronary Syndromes. NEJM 2011


Shakespeare CF, Coltart DJ. Latest advances in Cardiology. Postgraduate Medical Journal. 1992. 68: 327-337

Shakespeare CF, Anderson M, Camm AJ. Pathophysiology of supraventricular tachycardia. European Heart Journal 1993 14:2-8

Shakespeare CF, Keeling P, Slade W. et al Le myocardiopathie hypertrophique et l’arrthymie. Archives Mal de Coeur et Vaisseaux. 1992: 8531-8536

Shakespeare CF, Camm AJ. The benefits of improvements in pacemaker technology. Clinical Cardiology 1992 15: 601-606

Shakespeare CF, Keeling P, Slade W. et al Developpmentsencardiomyopthiehypertrophie. RealitesCardiologiques 1992 38:12-17

Katritsis D, Shakespeare CF, Camm AJ. Adaptive rate pacing; new and combined sensors. Clinical Cardiology 1993 16:240-248

Shakespeare CF, Slade W, Keeling P,  et al. Risk stratification in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Cardiomyopathy Update 1995. 5

Shakespeare CF, Coltart DJ. Cardiological complications of Travel. Travel Medicine International. 1992. 34: 57-60

Shakespeare CF, Rowland E. Efficacy of antiarrhythmic drugsDrugs and Therapeutics Bulletin 1996

Fragakis N, Shakespeare CF. Atrial pacing in sick sinus syndrome. Opinions in General and Elderly Medicine. 1998 2.2: 13-15


Bayliss J, Shakespeare CF, Lincoln C. et al. Does invasive cardiology require the presence of cardiac surgery? British Heart Journal. 1987 57:79

Shakespeare CF, Crowther A, Cooper, et al. Autonomic function in silent ischaemia. British Heart Journal. 1991 66: 83-84

Shakespeare CF, Katritsis D, Byrne C, et al.  Is left ventriculography mandatory in the assessment of patients with ischaemic heart disease? European Heart Journal. 1991 12:327

Cooper I, Shakespeare CF, Thompson DS, et al. Six month angiographic follow up in patients undergoing excimer laser angioplasty.  European Heart Journal. 1991 12:393

Shakespeare CF, Crowther A, Cooper I, et al. Differences in autonomic function in patients with silent myocardial ischaemia. Circulation 1991 84: II-100.

Shakespeare CF, Crowther A, Cooper I, et al. Autonomic reflexes initiated by balloon angioplasty. Circulation 1991. 84:II-268

Shakespeare CF, Page C, O’Doherty M, et al. Regional differences in autonomic innervation of the heart using metaiodobenzylguanidine imaging. British Nuclear Medicine Society Annual Scientific Meeting. 1992

Shakespeare CF, Crowther A, Cooper I, et al. Autonomic reflexes stimulated by elective coronary balloon angioplasty: regional differences in afferent population. British Heart Journal. 1992 68:152

Shakespeare CF, Page C, O’Doherty M, et al. Differences in regional autonomic innervation of the heart using metaiodobenzylguanidine imaging. British Heart Journal. 1992 68:12

Shakespeare CF, Crowther A, Cooper I, et al. The mechanism of autonomic reflexes induced by routine angiography. European Heart Journal 1992. 13:78

Hossein-Nia M, Brown P, Shakespeare CF, et al Subclinical myocardial damage revealed by CK-MB2 isoform release in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Circulation 1992. 86:I-592

Slade W, Keeling P, Shakespeare CF, et al. Chronotropic incompetence in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and its association with impaired exercise capacity. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 1993. 21:353

Lu-Fei, Anderson MA, Katritsis D, Shakespeare CF, et al. Evidence of unbalanced autonomic activity by hourly analysis of heart rate variability in sudden cardiac death survivors. Journal American College Cardiology 1993.21:92

Fragakis N, Ireland R, Ratneswaren N, Shakespeare CF, Atrial Fibrillation in Hospital and General Practice. Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh 1998;6

Fragakis N, Bostock J, Shakespeare CF, et al. Reversion and maintenance of sinus rhythm in patients with permanent atrial fibrillation by internal cardioversion followed by bi-atrial pacing. Journal American Coll Cardiol. 2000. Supp . 35. 1004-171

Fragakis N, Bostock J, Shakespeare CF, et al.Interatrial delay conduction delay cannot predict the maintenance of sinus rhythm during bi-atrial pacing in patients with permanent atrial fibrillation. Journal American Coll Cardiol. 2000. Supp A .35.1075-587.

Fragakis N, Bostock J, Shakespeare CF, et al. Patients with permanent atrial fibrillation can be maintained in sinus rhythm by internal cardioversion following bi-atrial pacing. PACE 2000. 4 Part II. 587

Fragakis N, Simon RD, Lloyd G, Shakespeare CF, et al. Internal cardioversion combined with bi-atrial pacing as treatment for patients with chronic atrial fibrillation resistant to to external cardioversion. European Heart Journal 2000. P2974

Egred M, Shakespeare CF, Corr L. Effectiveness and feasibility of community based GP run cardiology clinics. Heart 2000. 84:52

Egred M, Andreou M, Bowker T, Shakespeare CF. Are cardiologists better at coronary risk factor recording and cardiac medical prescription in patients with ischaemic heart disease. Eur. J Int. Med 2001 12:169

Shakespeare CF, Metcalf S . Early thrombolysis, the realities and practicalities. British Cardiac Society  May 2002.

Shakespeare CF, Barrett A, Kirkham D. Implementing a high security prison telemedicine healthcare service. Royal Society of Medicine 2003

Egred M, Shakespeare CF, Pennell D, Corr L. Magnetic Resonance Angiography in assessment of first reported case of a duplicate right coronary artery. International Journal of Cardiology. 2005

Shakespeare CF. The Electrophysiology of Heart Failure. Hellenic Society of Cardiology. Thessaloniki, Greece. April 2005.

Shakespeare CF. One Stop Shop in Hypertension. Hellenic Society of Hypertension. Thessaloniki, Greece. March 2006

Ismail T,…Shakespeare CF….Clinical and CMR Predictors of Myocardial Fibrosis in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy and the role of LV thickness. Circulation AHA 2011 (in press)

Jabbour A,….Shakespeare CF…Non-invasive Assessment of Interstitial Myocardial Fibrosis in Pressure-Overload Left Ventricular Hypertrophy. Circulation AHA 2011 (in press)

Jabbour A,….Shakespeare CF…Potential of Pre-Contrast T1 Mapping as a Marker of Interstitial Fibrosis in Severe Aortic Stenosis. Circulation AHA 2011